In Vivo Imaging Probes

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In Vivo Imaging Probes


In vivo optical imaging techniques might provide opportunities to observe the dynamic real–time localization and translocation of molecules in living cells. In vivo fluorescence imagings are being applied in preclinical research studies, and real–time in vivo studies using animals have been used to track cell–based therapies and to monitor the response to chemotherapies. Other fields of in vivo imaging applications are elucidation of fundamental processes in living organisms or assessment of stem cell differentiation, etc. BioActs provides a range of reagents and probes such as near–infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes and conjugated probes for in vivo study. The unparalleled photochemical properties of our probes might offer new opportunity in animal and in vivo imaging applications.

Fluorescent NIR Dyes

Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence is safe and cost effective technique and allows to observe the deep fluorescence image through inside biological tissue. NIR dyes are and used in medical diagnostics, in vitro, vivo and animal model study. BioActs offers a series of NIR dyes such as FSD Fluor™, Flamma® Fluors, and ICG.

FSD Fluor™

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647 680 750  800     

Flamma® 648

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NHS ester VInylsulfone Sulfo-NHS  Isothiocynate  Carboxylic acid Maleimide
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Amine Thiol Dichlorotriazine Hydrazide Alkyne PEG4-Alkyne
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ADIBO Azide Biotin Streptavidin    

Flamma® 675

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NHS ester VInylsulfone Sulfo-NHS  Isothiocynate  Carboxylic acid Maleimide
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Amine Thiol Dichlorotriazine Hydrazide Alkyne PEG4-Alkyne
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ADIBO Azide Biotin Streptavidin    

Flamma® 749

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NHS ester VInylsulfone Sulfo-NHS  Isothiocynate  Carboxylic acid Maleimide
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Amine Thiol Dichlorotriazine Hydrazide Alkyne PEG4-Alkyne
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ADIBO Azide Biotin Streptavidin    

Flamma® 774

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NHS ester VInylsulfone Sulfo-NHS  Isothiocynate  Carboxylic acid Maleimide
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Amine Thiol Dichlorotriazine Hydrazide Alkyne PEG4-Alkyne
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ADIBO Azide Biotin Streptavidin    

Flamma® 800

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VInylsulfone          

ICG Dye

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ICG ICG (water-soluble) NHS ester Vinylsulfone Sulfo-NHS ester Isothiocyanate
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Carboxylic acid Maleimide Amine Thiol Dichlorotriazine Hydrazide
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Alkyne PEG4-Alkyne ADIBO Azide    
 

In Vivo Imaging Probes (Fluorescence)


NpFlamma® HGC series
NpFlamma® HGC series is a fluorescent dye incorporated biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan based amphiphilic nanoparticle that enables to selectively detect tumor cells. Chitosan nanoparticles can selectively accumulate in cancer tissues due to high permeability for loose new blood vessels around cancer tissues and retention effect. The polymeric nanoparticles form self-aggregates size of several hundred nanometers in the aqueous system accumulate only in vicinity of cancer tissues. Chitosan particles display low toxicity along with absence of noticeable side effect in vivo, yet they exhibit a long half-life, high stability and aqueous solubility. Thus, NpFlamma® HGC series is an ideal fluorescence agent for in vivo imaging of angiography and tumor progression. In conjunction with NIR dyes, the series allows to observe non-invasive images of cancer metastases and to contrast blood vessel. The hydrophobic nature of NpFlamma® HGC series can embed hydrophobic materials, thus they can be utilized as a selective carrier for hydrophobic cancer drugs such as doxorubicin and paclitaxel, etc. In addition, carboxylic acids on the surface of NpFlamma® HGC series can bind to a variety of biomolecules via amide or ester linkages enabling to utilize them in multi-purposes.

NpFlamma® MMP series
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of calcium-dependent, zinc-containing endopeptidases that that in concert are responsible for the degradation of most extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins during organogenesis, growth and normal tissue turnover. Humans have 23 MMPs family, and the expression and activity of MMPs in adult tissues is normally quite low, but increases significantly in various pathological conditions that may lead into unwanted tissue destruction, tumor growth and metastasis, inflammatory diseases, etc. Cancer cells secrete VEGF and FGF in order to induce angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, but cannot reach to vascular endothelial cells as being caught in ECM. Although MMPs are connected with cancer cells survival and expansion, only very small amount of MMPs are synthetized by cancer cell. However, the cancer cells induce inflammatory cells to secrete MMPs for assisting the delivery of VEGF secreted by cancer cells and make peripheral space for angiogenesis. The connection between MMPs and apoptosis, cell migration and angiogenesis enables to utilizing MMPs as tumor markers. An increased expression and activity of MMPs in both tissues and blood of patients with various types of cancer is observed.

Annexin V Flamma® series
Annexin V Flamma® series is a rapid and selective probe for labeling of externalized PS, an indicator of intermediate stages of apoptosis. Flamma® dyes display strong absorption, high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability, and they maintain good fluorescence activity and stability after conjugation to biomolecules, allowing the detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Annexin V Flamma® conjugates can be utilized in fluorescent imaging as well as for flow cytometry of apoptotic cells, and they might be used in combination with other dyes such as propidium iodide (PI) in order to accurately analyze mixed populations of apoptotic and other cells. Annexin V Flamma® probes available as stand-alone reagent or easy-to-us kits.

ApoFlamma® series
ApoFlamma® H series made up of a covalent-connection of CQRPPR hexapeptide (ApoPep) with corresponding fluorophore. ApoPep strongly binds to apoptotic and necrotic cells but weakly binds to live cells. The receptor for ApoPep was histone H1 that exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells. In necrotic cells, ApoPep entered the cells and bound to histone H1. The monitoring of tumor apoptosis in response to chemotherapy can be easily realized with optical imaging technique utilizing ApoFlamma® H series. We recommend ApoFlamma® H series as versatile fluorescent probes for in vitro and in vivo imaging of apoptosis with targeting for histone H1.

AngioFlamma® series
Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors for cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and play important roles in certain cell-cell adhesions. In addition, they make transmembrane connections to the cytoskeleton and activate many intracellular signaling pathways. Because of their role in tumor angiogenesis and progression, integrins have become important diagnostic and therapeutic targets. To date 24 distinct integrins are known, and among them, integrin αvβ3 is known to strongly involve in the regulation of angiogenesis. The αvβ3 is generally expressed in low levels on the epithelial cells and mature endothelial cells, but it is highly expressed in many solid tumors. The αvβ3 levels correlate well with the potential for tumor metastasis and aggressiveness, which make it an important biological target for development of antiangiogenic drugs and molecular imaging probes for early tumor diagnosis.
 

NpFlamma® HGC Series

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648 675 749  774  HGC IGC  

NpFlamma® MMP Series

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MMP-2,9 648 MMP-2,9 675 MMP-2,9 749 MMP-2,9 774 MMP-2,9 ICG MMP-3,7 648
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MMP-3,7 675 MMP-3,7 749 MMP-3,7 774 MMP-3,7 ICG MMP-13 648 MMP-13 675
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MMP-13 749 MMP-13 774 MMP-13 ICG      

Annexin V Flamma® Series

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648 675 749 774 V-ICG  

AngioFlamma® Series

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648 675 749 774 ICG  

ApoFlamma® Series

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648 675 749 774 ICG  
 

NIR Cell (Membrane) Tracers

The analysis of live cell membranes and liposome bilayers represents a significant area of application for fluorescent probes. Lipophilic organic dyes bear some structural resemblance to natural lipids and can be incorporated into cell wall and liposome. BioActs developed CytoFlamma® cell membrane series as versatile membrane selective fluorescent probes. The probes consist of Flamma dye attached with hydrophobic lipid analogs. They can be used in studies for biophysical analysis of membranes, for tracing lipid transport and metabolism in live cells, and for lipid-mediated signal transduction processes. Flamma® dyes display strong absorption, high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability, and they maintain good fluorescence activity and stability after conjugation to biomolecules. Due to low toxicity and stable retention, CytoFlamma® cell membrane probes might be useful for long-term cell tracing and can be used as membrane markers of endocytosis and exocytosis. The probes are stable under photooxidation effects induced by ultraviolet excitation and are resistant to spontaneous oxidation. We offer CytoFlamma® cell membrane series as selective fluorescent probes for analyzing cell structure by incorporating into plasma membrane.

CytoFlamma® Series

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648/672 (1 mM) 648/672 (5 mM) 756/785 (1 mM) 756/785 (5 mM)    
 

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